Enthusiasm never stops


Goodbye Acronis cloud — Hello Encrypted S3 backup!

Over time the backup strategies for my personal laptop are changing in the search for the most cost-effective, robust and secure solution. And it must be able to back up both my Windows host and Linux virtual machine.

  • I tried a backup to an AWS EC2 instance for a while but this was expensive.
  • I then changed to Acronis Cloud backup because I’m very satisfied with their local hard disk backups. But their online cloud backup was an unpleasant experience. The cloud backup failed without indication in the taskbar; when I clicked for more info, the cryptic “error(0x49052524) in lib; please contact support” was displayed; I contacted support to no avail — but they wanted me to reinstall; it fixed itself after a dozen of days; this has happened two times in a few months; last but not least, when I wanted to browse my online backup the web interface was really slow. Sorry Acronis, but you really disappointed me.

Now I’ve come to an open-source solution for my backup needs — the Encrypted S3 Backup written in Bash based on the official Amazon Command-Line Interface (CLI). This simple backup system leaves control and visibility in your hands. Additionally, the backup scripts are very small and you can easily audit them. The README provides all information about the design, security, usage, disaster recovery, etc. More or less, it’s a solution for Linux technical guys, and not really suited for end-uses who should try Duplicati instead. And it doesn’t back up an “image” of your system but it is file-based. Only the file data is archived, so you can’t restore the file owners, permissions and other meta info.

Let’s review the pricing side. In my case I’m doing a daily backup for 125 GB data in 320,000 files.

  • The incremental daily backup costs me $2.73 per month. 89% is the cost for S3 (mainly the GB-storage cost) and the rest is for bandwidth.
  • The initial one-time upload of 70 GB costed me $3.43. Expect about double for 125 GB.
  • The projected cost for a full restore is $11.59 where 96% is the price of the used bandwidth from S3 to Internet.
  • All prices are without taxes.

As far as performance is concerned, S3 is great!

  • Browsing my backup versions in the online S3 explorer is lightning fast.
  • The daily sync for 125 GB data in 320,000 files takes 23 minutes. I don’t change a lot of files on my laptop during my daily activities.
  • My initial upload performed with a speed of 10 MBytes/s, and it could have been faster if I had more than 80 Mbit/s Internet at my disposal.

Note that in the end you need to trust AWS S3 to encrypt your data server-side, and then to completely forget your original data.

Backup icon by PRchecker

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Locally encrypted secure remote backup over Internet on Linux (iSCSI / TrueCrypt)

Recently I decided to start using Amazon AWS as my backup storage but my paranoid soul wasn’t satisfied until I figured it out how to secure my private data. It’s not that I don’t trust Amazon but a lot of bad things could happen if I decided that I just copy my data to a remote server on Amazon:

  • Amazon staff would have access to my data.
  • A breach in Amazon’s systems would expose my data.
  • A breach in my remote server OS would expose my data.

One of the solutions which I considered was to encrypt my local file-system with eCryptfs but it has some issues with relatively long file names.

Finally I came out with the following working backup solution which I currently use to backup both my Windows and Linux partitions. I share the Windows root directory with the VirtualBox Linux machine and run the backup scripts from there. Here is a short explanation of the properties and features of the backup setup:

  • Locally encrypted — all files which I store on the iSCSI volume are encrypted on my personal desktop, before being sent to the remote server. This ensures that the files cannot be read by anyone else.
  • Secure — besides the local volume encryption, the whole communication is done over an SSH tunnel which secures the Internet point-to-point client-to-server communication.
  • Remote — having a remote backup ensures that even if someone breached in my house and steals my laptop and my offline backup, I can still recover my data from the remote server. Furthermore, it is more convenient to frequently backup on a remote machine, because we have Internet access everywhere now. Note that remote backups are not a substitution for offline backups.
  • Over Internet — very convenient. Of course, this backup scheme can be used in any TCP/IP network — private LAN, WAN, VPN networks, etc.

The following two articles provide detailed instructions on how to setup the backup solution:

Daily usage example

Here are the commands which I execute, in order to make a backup of my laptop. Those can be further scripted and automated if a daily or more frequent backup is required:

IP= # the public DNS IP address of the EC2 instance / server

## Execute the following, in order to mount the remote encrypted iSCSI volume:

sudo -E \
  ssh -F /dev/null \
  -o PermitLocalCommand=yes \
  -o LocalCommand="ifconfig tun0 pointopoint netmask" \
  -o ServerAliveInterval=60 \
  -w 0:0 root@"$IP" \
  'sudo ifconfig tun0 pointopoint netmask; hostname; echo tun0 ready'

sudo iscsiadm -m node --targetname "iqn.2012-03.net.famzah:storage.backup" --portal "" --login
sudo truecrypt --filesystem=none -k "" --protect-hidden=no /dev/sdb
sudo mount /dev/mapper/truecrypt1 /mnt

## You can now work on /mnt -- make a backup, copy files, etc.

ls -la /mnt

## Execute the following, in order to unmount the encrypted iSCSI volume:

sudo umount /mnt
sudo truecrypt -d /dev/sdb
sudo iscsiadm -m node --targetname "iqn.2012-03.net.famzah:storage.backup" --portal "" --logout
# stop the SSH tunnel

Disaster recovery plan

Any backup is useless if you cannot restore your data. If your main computer is totally out, you would need the following, in order to access your backed up data:

In order to be able to log in to the remote server via SSH, you need to set up the following:

vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config # PasswordAuthentication yes
/etc/init.d/ssh restart
passwd root # set a very long password which you CAN remember

Make sure that you test if you can log in using an SSH client which does not have your SSH key and thus requires you to enter the root password manually.

I do not consider password authentication for the root account to be a security threat here. The backup server is online only during the time a backup is being made, after which I shut it down in order to save money from Amazon AWS. Furthermore, the backup has a new IP address on each new EC2 machine start, so an attacker cannot continue a brute-force attack easily, even if they started it.