Enthusiasm never stops


Using flock() in Bash without invoking a subshell

The flock(1) utility on Linux manages flock(2) advisory locks from within shell scripts or the command line. This lets you synchronize your Bash scripts with all your other applications written in Perl, Python, C, etc.

I’ll focus on the third usage form where flock() is used inside a Bash script. Here is what the man page suggests:


flock -s 200

# ... commands executed under lock ...

) 200>/var/lock/mylockfile

Unfortunately, this invokes a subshell which has the following drawbacks:

  • You cannot pass values to variables from the subshell in the main shell script.
  • There is a performance penalty.
  • The syntax coloring in “vim” does not work properly. 🙂

This motivated my colleague zImage to come up with a usage form which does not invoke a subshell in Bash:


exec {lock_fd}>/var/lock/mylockfile || exit 1
flock -n "$lock_fd" || { echo "ERROR: flock() failed." >&2; exit 1; }

# ... commands executed under lock ...

flock -u "$lock_fd"

Note that you can skip the “flock -u “$lock_fd” unlock command if it is at the very end of your script. In such a case, your lock file will be unlocked once your process terminates.